Learning About the World

Science


Engineering Design

Goal 1: Children design, experiment, construct, alter, and problem solve to modify the natural world and meet their needs and wants.

By the end of each age group or grade level, most children will have met prior age group or grade level standards in this domain.

Infants Through Older Toddlers

Infants

(0-12 Months)

  1. Demonstrate interest in people and objects in the environment
  2. Experiment with body movement
  3. Track movement with eyes
  4. Use all senses to explore the properties of objects in environment to gain knowledge
  5. Use body to account for size when interacting with objects (e.g., opens arms wide to grasp a large ball)
  6. Carrying objects, putting into containers and dumping

Young Toddlers

(9-18 Months)

  1. Coordinate body movement for purposeful actions
  2. Act on objects in different ways to make them move, ex. pushing vs kicking ball
  3. Repeat actions purposefully, observing results
  4. Push and pull objects to observe results
  5. Use simple tools to explore functions (e.g., a hammer is for pounding, a crayon is for paper)
  6. Use a tool to get to an out of reach object
  7. Experiment with materials (ex. crayons, markers, play dough)
  8. Experiments in multiple ways with objects to achieve goal
  9. Asks, “What’s that?”
  10. Experiment with arranging objects horizontally and vertically

Older Toddlers

(18-36 Months)

  1. Use two toys together purposefully (e.g., use toy wrench to fix toy car)
  2. Experiment with everyday objects in novel ways.
  3. Build structures experimenting with height and breadth
  4. Ask questions about how objects work
  5. Make observations, experiments, and adjusts actions to gather information needed to solve physical problems
  6. Use simple tools as props for play (e.g., uses paper towel tube as tunnel for matchbox car or small balls)
  7. Stack objects to build structures, including connecting blocks/units.
Younger Preschoolers Through Kindergartners

Younger Preschoolers

(36-48 months)

  1. Investigate properties of movement through ramps, pulleys, tracks, etc.
  2. Understand cause & effect (e.g., if I do this then that will happen)
  3. Build and rebuild elaborate structures out of a variety of materials experimenting with substance, height, breadth, and balance
  4. Use simple tools to experiment and observe functions
  5. Investigate objects that require positioning and movement

Older Preschoolers

(48-60 months)

  1. Draw pictures that represent physical structures
  2. Follow a simple visual plan to construct a structure
  3. Ask why and how questions to figure out how objects work
  4. Use simple tools to construct solutions to problems
  5. Use classroom objects in novel ways to enhance child-directed play

Kindergartners

Engineering Design

  1. Ask questions, make observations, and gather information about a situation people want to change to define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool
  2. Develop a simple sketch, drawing, or physical model to illustrate how the shape of an object helps it function as needed to solve a given problem
  3. Analyze data from tests of two objects designed to solve the same problem to compare the strengths and weaknesses of how each performs
First Graders Through Third Graders

First Graders

Engineering Design

  1. Ask questions, make observations, and gather information about a situation people want to change to define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool
  2. Develop a simple sketch, drawing, or physical model to illustrate how the shape of an object helps it function as needed to solve a given problem
  3. Analyze data from tests of two objects designed to solve the same problem to compare the strengths and weaknesses of how each performs

Second Graders

Engineering Design

  1. Ask questions, make observations, and gather information about a situation people want to change to define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool
  2. Develop a simple sketch, drawing, or physical model to illustrate how the shape of an object helps it function as needed to solve a given problem
  3. Analyze data from tests of two objects designed to solve the same problem to compare the strengths and weaknesses of how each performs

Third Graders

Engineering Design

  1. Define a simple design problem reflecting a need or a want that includes specified criteria for success and constraints on materials, time, or cost
  2. Generate and compare multiple possible solutions to a problem based on how well each is likely to meet the criteria and constraints of the problem
  3. Plan and carry out fair tests in which variables are controlled and failure points are considered to identify aspects of a model or prototype that can be improved

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Secretary Daniel M. French
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Barre, VT 05641

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