Developing Self

Growing, Moving and Being Healthy


Motor Development and Coordination

Goal 1: Children develop strength, coordination, and control of their large muscles.

By the end of each age group or grade level, most children will have met prior age group or grade level standards in this domain.

Infants Through Older Toddlers

Infants

(0-12 Months)

  1. Maintain upright posture when sitting or standing
  2. Move to explore immediate environment (e.g. scoots, creeps, crawls)
  3. Pull to stand, cruise, then walk a few steps independently
  4. Balance while exploring immediate environment (e.g., sit and reach for toys without toppling over)

Young Toddlers

(9-18 Months)

  1. Move hands and legs together to push, pull, and climb (e.g., carry objects while walking, pull a toy on a string behind them, push a toy shopping cart, climb on the coffee table)
  2. Demonstrate emerging balance and coordination (e.g., stoop and squat to explore objects on the ground, crawl up stairs and down them backwards)
  3. Sustain balance during simple movements (e.g., walk independently, stand legs apart and swat to music)

Older Toddlers

(18-36 Months)

  1. Walk and run with increasing skill demonstrating the ability to change speeds and direction
  2. Coordinate moving arms and legs to complete a task (e.g., catch a large ball against body, climb on play equipment, kick a stationary ball)
  3. Sustain balance during simple movements (e.g., jump off low step landing with both feet; walk up and down stairs one at a time with both feet; walk backwards)
Younger Preschoolers Through Kindergartners

Younger Preschoolers

(36-48 months)

  1. Sustain balance during more complex movements (e.g., balance on one foot for a few moments, walk along a straight line or low beam; jump over obstacles landing on two feet)
  2. Coordinate moving arms and legs to complete a task more complex task (e.g., pedal a tricycle)
  3. Move through space with good coordination and show body awareness to stop and start with control
  4. Manipulate balls or similar objects with flexible body movements (e.g., catch a ball by trapping it against body, kick stationary ball by running or stepping up to it, throw a ball)

Older Preschoolers

(48-60 months)

  1. Exhibit motor control and balance when moving the whole body in a range of physical activities (e.g., alternate feet walking up and down stairs, propelling a wheelchair or mobility device, skipping, running, climbing and hopping)
  2. Demonstrate motor control and coordination when using objects for a range of physical activities (e.g., pulling, throwing, catching, kicking, bouncing or hitting balls, pedaling a tricycle)
  3. Accept guidance and direction from familiar adults and seeks their support when needed
  4. Move through space showing awareness of own body in relation to other people and objects
  5. Manipulate balls or similar objects with flexible body movements (e.g., bounce and catch a ball

Kindergartners

  1. Solve simple movement challenges individually involving body parts or self and general space.
  2. Identify large and small body parts
  3. Demonstrate progress toward the mature form of selected loco-motor and manipulative skills, and the ability to stop and start on a signal
  4. Identify and demonstrate personal and general space
  5. Demonstrate momentary stillness in a variety of balance activities
First Graders Through Third Graders

First Graders

  1. Solve simple movement challenges with a partner and movement challenges involving one or more movement concepts alone or with a partner.
  2. Select a developmentally appropriate level of challenge, and perform successfully.
  3. Demonstrate body movement and shapes
  4. Demonstrate competency in the mature form of selected locomotors and manipulative skills, and the ability to stop with control at a boundary
  5. Demonstrate the ability to change direction, quickly and safely, without falling.
  6. Identify the locomotors movement.
  7. Apply space concepts in simple games and other activities
  8. Demonstrate and understand balancing skills alone or with equipment
  9. Demonstrate an understanding of the variations in force
  10. Demonstrate contrast between fast and slow movement, a simple rhythmic movement, and following a simple rhythmic movements led by the teacher
  11. Combine two fundamental skills and demonstrate smooth transitions between movements

Second Graders

  1. Solve simple movement challenges with a partner and movement challenges involving one or more movement concepts alone or with a partner.
  2. Select a developmentally appropriate level of challenge, and perform successfully.
  3. Demonstrate body movement and shapes
  4. Demonstrate competency in the mature form of selected locomotors and manipulative skills, and the ability to stop with control at a boundary
  5. Demonstrate the ability to change direction, quickly and safely, without falling.
  6. Identify the locomotors movement.
  7. Apply space concepts in simple games and other activities
  8. Demonstrate and understand balancing skills alone or with equipment
  9. Demonstrate an understanding of the variations in force
  10. Demonstrate contrast between fast and slow movement, a simple rhythmic movement, and following a simple rhythmic movements led by the teacher
  11. Combine two fundamental skills and demonstrate smooth transitions between movements

Third Graders

  1. Solve simple movement challenges in a group, and increasingly more complex challenges
  2. Select an appropriate piece of equipment to be challenged yet successful at a task
  3. Adjust own movement to work successfully with a partner
  4. Identify body parts, their actions when describing a movement (including muscle groups), and an awareness of the relationship of body parts
  5. Demonstrating competency in the mature form of a leap, alternating the leading foot
  6. Solve more complex movement challenges with others, including apply space concepts in simple games and other activities.
  7. Demonstrate balancing with control on a variety of equipment, and an understanding of static and dynamic balance.
  8. Demonstrate an understanding of how the body creates and absorbs force
  9. Demonstrate contrast between fast, medium and slow movement, incorporation of a variety of equipment with rhythmic movements and patterns, and develop a movement sequence that incorporates a change in tempo

Goal 2: Children develop strength, eye-hand coordination, and control of their small or fine motor muscles.

By the end of each age group or grade level, most children will have met prior age group or grade level standards in this domain.

Infants Through Older Toddlers

Infants

(0-12 Months)

  1. Transfer objects from one hand to another
  2. Use both hands to hold, reach for and let go of objects
  3. Coordinate movements using eyes and hands (e.g., bring hands together, stack rings)

Young Toddlers

(9-18 Months)

  1. Demonstrate control of hands and fingers (e.g., pick up a ball, hold a large crayon and make marks)
  2. Move fingers independent of other fingers (e.g., point to objects)
  3. Demonstrate eye-hand coordination (e.g., feed themselves finger foods, fill container with smaller objects)

Older Toddlers

(18-36 Months)

  1. Feed themselves using utensils and hands
  2. Coordinate use of hands and fingers to accomplish more complex actions (e.g., put together knob puzzles, turn pages of a book)
  3. Perform simple fine motor skills (e.g., use play dough, string large beads)
  4. Use tools that require finger and hand coordination (e.g., string large beads)
Younger Preschoolers Through Kindergartners

Younger Preschoolers

(36-48 months)

  1. Feed themselves using utensils independently
  2. Refine grasp to manipulate tools that require strength, control and dexterity (e.g., pressing down with pencils or crayons to make a clear mark, cut paper, joining snap beads)
  3. Demonstrate more complex eye-hand coordination (e.g., complete puzzles with smaller pieces, use tongs to grasp objects)

Older Preschoolers

(48-60 months)

  1. Demonstrate fine motor skills requiring greater strength and control (e.g., use a paper punch, stapler, spray bottle)
  2. Use eye-hand coordination to accomplish more complex tasks (e.g., button or zip clothes, eat with a fork, cut out simple shapes staying close to lines, use writing tools, fit pegs into pegboard)

Kindergartners

  1. Use small, precise finger and hand movements (e.g., builds a structure using the small Legos)
  2. Use 3-point finger grip when writing or drawing
First Graders Through Third Graders

First Graders

  1. Use smooth, controlled finger and hand movements that also require eye-hand coordination (e.g., pours water into a water bottle with a small opening with little spillage, traces shapes)

Second Graders

  1. Continue using controlled finger and hand movements to accomplish tasks (e.g., knitting on large needles; playing a recorder)
  2. Demonstrate control and appropriate pressure when using writing and drawing tools

Third Graders

  1. Choose a variety of healthy foods in appropriate portions
  2. Identify and classify foods, including recommended amounts to eat
  3. Identify major nutrients supplied by food groups necessary for growth and maintenance of a healthy body and mind

Vermont Agency of Education
Secretary Daniel M. French
219 North Main Street, Suite 402
Barre, VT 05641

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