Developing Self

Growing, Moving and Being Healthy


Health and Safety Practices

Goal 1: Children develop healthy eating habits and knowledge of good nutrition.

By the end of each age group or grade level, most children will have met prior age group or grade level standards in this domain.

Infants Through Older Toddlers

Infants

(0-12 Months)

  1. Communicate feelings of hunger and fullness (e.g., cry or search for food, turn away when full)
  2. Show food preferences
  3. Eat different kinds of foods (e.g., liquids, pureed or soft foods, finely chopped food)

Young Toddlers

(9-18 Months)

  1. Try new foods
  2. Eat a variety of nutritious foods from all food groups
  3. Eat finger foods (e.g., Cheerios)

Older Toddlers

(18-36 Months)

  1. Try new foods
  2. Show interest in and communicate about food, textures, tastes (e.g., crunchy, warm, sweet)
  3. Consume age nutritious beverages (e.g., water, milk)
Younger Preschoolers Through Kindergartners

Younger Preschoolers

(36-48 months)

  1. Try new foods
  2. Eat a variety of nutritious foods and communicate that some foods and beverages are good for them (e.g., milk, fruit, vegetables) and some are not (e.g., soda, snack chips)
  3. Choose to eat foods that are better for the body than others, with assistance

Older Preschoolers

(48-60 months)

  1. Eat a variety of nutritious foods
  2. Distinguish food on a continuum from most healthy to less healthy
  3. Assist adults to prepare healthy snacks and meals
  4. Communicate food preferences
  5. Sort food into food groups and communicate benefits of healthy foods

Kindergartners

  1. Help prepare healthy snacks and meals
  2. Communicate simple explanations for own and others’ food allergies
First Graders Through Third Graders

First Graders

  1. Identify a variety of nutritious food choices
  2. Select a variety of foods that can be eaten for healthy snacks
  3. Create a list of foods that should be limited
  4. Communicate the importance of eating a variety of nutrient-rich foods

Second Graders

  1. Communicate the benefits of eating a variety of nutrient-rich foods
  2. Create healthy fruit and vegetable snacks
  3. Set a short-term personal goal for healthy eating
  4. Communicate the consequences of health behaviors and choices, including food choices, that may prevent illness with assistance and support

Third Graders

  1. Choose a variety of healthy foods in appropriate portions
  2. Identify and classify foods, including recommended amounts to eat
  3. Identify major nutrients supplied by food groups necessary for growth and maintenance of a healthy body and mind

Goal 2: Children develop personal health and self-care habits, and become increasingly independent.

By the end of each age group or grade level, most children will have met prior age group or grade level standards in this domain.

Infants Through Older Toddlers

Infants

(0-12 Months)

  1. Sleep well and show alertness during waking periods
  2. Develop a personal sleep routine or patterns
  3. Indicate, in a variety of ways, own personal health and self-care needs and wants (e.g., cry/vocalize when need changing or hungry)
  4. Tolerate, show interest, and assist in care routines (hand washing, raise arms for dressing)

Young Toddlers

(9-18 Months)

  1. Participate and cooperate with sleep routines (e.g., choose a book, get preferred sleep ‘object’)
  2. Use objects and follow routines that are comforting (e.g., pick out favorite book to be read before nap/bedtime)
  3. Cooperate and may assist with care routines (mouth care, hand washing, dressing, bathing)

Older Toddlers

(18-36 Months)

  1. Fall asleep on own and sleep well, waking rested and ready to be active
  2. Communicate to request things they need (e.g., food when hungry, drink when thirsty)
  3. Show some independence in personal care routines
  4. Initiate and complete some personal health routines and self-care needs with assistance (e.g., wash hands, brush teeth, dress/undress)
  5. Use personal care objects (e.g., face cloth, brush) with assistance
  6. Participate in bathroom routine, show interest in toilet training, and use the toilet with help
  7. Communicate with caregiver when not feeling well
  8. Name people who help children stay healthy (nurse, doctor, dentist)
Younger Preschoolers Through Kindergartners

Younger Preschoolers

(36-48 months)

  1. Stay awake except during nap time and initiate and participate in sleep routines with increasing independence
  2. Participate easily and know what to do in routine activities (such as meal time, nap time)
  3. Take care of own toileting needs with little assistance
  4. Attend to personal health needs and self-care needs independently (e.g., dress and undress with limited assistance)
  5. Follow basic hygiene practices with reminders and limited assistance (e.g., brush teeth, wash hands, use toilet, cough into elbow)
  6. Gain independence in hygiene practices (e.g., cough into elbow, wash hands, flush toilet)

Older Preschoolers

(48-60 months)

  1. Communicate with words or sign language to ask adults or peers specifically for the kind of help needed in a particular situation
  2. Independently start and participate in sleep routines
  3. Communicate ways sleep keeps us healthy and makes us feel good
  4. Communicate how daily activity and healthy behavior promote overall personal health with some support
  5. Independently complete personal care tasks (e.g., brushing teeth, toileting, washing hands)
  6. Explain the importance of doctor and dentist visits and cooperate during these visits and with health and developmental screenings
  7. Recognize and communicate when experiencing pain or symptoms of illness
  8. Participate in structured and unstructured physical activities

Kindergartners

  1. Identify several physical activities that are personally enjoyable
  2. Attempt new movements, skills, and activities
  3. Continue to participate in structured and unstructured physical activities
  4. Communicate the value of good health practices (e.g., wash hands to get rid of germs, drink milk to build strong bones)
First Graders Through Third Graders

First Graders

  1. Define in own words the four health-related fitness components and begin to identify some physiological signs of exercise.
  2. Identify an activity and a benefit associated with each of the four health-related fitness components.
  3. Describe their range of feelings resulting from participating in physical activity, attempt new activities, and continue to participate when initially unsuccessful.
  4. Understand how to reduce their health risks through the practice of healthy behaviors with assistance
  5. Demonstrate the ability to make decisions that lead to better health with reminders

Second Graders

  1. Define in own words the four health-related fitness components and begin to identify some physiological signs of exercise.
  2. Identify an activity and a benefit associated with each of the four health-related fitness components.
  3. Describe their range of feelings resulting from participating in physical activity, attempt new activities, and continue to participate when initially unsuccessful.
  4. Understand how to reduce their health risks through the practice of healthy behaviors with assistance
  5. Demonstrate the ability to make decisions that lead to better health with reminders

Third Graders

  1. Define, apply, and assess the four health-related fitness components
  2. Identify additional physiological effects of the different levels of exercise
  3. Identify a wide range of activities and benefits associated with the four health-related fitness components.
  4. Identify personal strengths and weaknesses
  5. Select a challenging but attainable physical activity goal and continue towards goal by working with a partner when initially unsuccessful.
  6. Demonstrate a basic understanding of how culture, media, peers, family, and other factors influence healthy behaviors with assistance
  7. Demonstrate the ability to set personal goals to enhance health with assistance

Goal 3: Children develop the ability to identify unsafe situations, and use safe practices.

By the end of each age group or grade level, most children will have met prior age group or grade level standards in this domain.

Infants Through Older Toddlers

Infants

(0-12 Months)

  1. Show preference for and trust in familiar caregivers
  2. Notice and imitate adults’ reactions to new people and situations
  3. Express discomfort or anxiety in stressful situations

Young Toddlers

(9-18 Months)

  1. React to simple verbal or nonverbal warnings of danger (e.g., ‘Stop! Wait! Hot!)
  2. Watch familiar adults for appropriate reactions to unfamiliar things or situations
  3. Show some caution about unfamiliar and/or unsafe situations

Older Toddlers

(18-36 Months)

  1. Respond appropriately to redirection by adults in order to avoid unsafe situations (e.g., stop before crossing street)
  2. Identify harmful or unsafe objects or situations with assistance
  3. Increase self-control over impulses (e.g., wait for adult to cross street and not run into street)
  4. Seek an adult’s help when in an unsafe or dangerous situation
  5. State and follow simple safety rules with adult support
Younger Preschoolers Through Kindergartners

Younger Preschoolers

(36-48 months)

  1. Independently identify and avoid situations and objects that might cause harm
  2. Follow basic safety rules with occasional reminders
  3. Demonstrate safety awareness when using objects (e.g., carry scissors with points down to avoid accidents)
  4. Seek an adult’s help when another child is in an unsafe or dangerous situation
  5. Understand the difference between safe and unsafe touch

Older Preschoolers

(48-60 months)

  1. Avoid potentially dangerous behaviors (e.g., do not take medicine or cross road without adult assistance)
  2. Follow basic safety rules and show safe behavior for self and others by applying established rules, procedures and safe practices with adult guidance
  3. Identify adults in their communities who can keep them safe (e.g., police, firefighter)
  4. Communicate an understanding of the importance of health and safety routines and rules
  5. Follow basic health and safety rules and respond appropriately to harmful or unsafe situations

Kindergartners

  1. Show safe behavior for self and others by applying established class rules, procedures, and safe practices with teacher guidance
  2. Explain the reasons for safety rules
  3. Demonstrate responsibility for following established class rules, procedures, and safe practices with teacher reinforcement.
  4. Demonstrate understanding that some practices (e.g., accepting rides from strangers) may be personally dangerous
  5. Recognize personal privacy in relation to their body
First Graders Through Third Graders

First Graders

  1. Apply established class rules, procedures, and safe practices with limited teacher guidance
  2. Demonstrate responsibility for making and applying rules regarding class procedures and safety
  3. Follow simple game rules safely, with good sports like behavior (with and without direct teacher supervision)

Second Graders

  1. Apply established class rules, procedures, and safe practices with limited teacher guidance
  2. Demonstrate responsibility for making and applying rules regarding class procedures and safety
  3. Follow simple game rules safely, with good sports like behavior (with and without direct teacher supervision)

Third Graders

  1. Practice personal and group safety by applying class rules, procedures, and practices
  2. Demonstrate responsibility for applying personal and group safety during play
  3. Practice fair play by using socially appropriate behavior and accepting decisions of the person in charge
  4. Use appropriate responses to harassment, bullying, intimidation or abuse

Vermont Agency of Education
Secretary Daniel M. French
219 North Main Street, Suite 402
Barre, VT 05641

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