Communication and Expression

Literacy Development


Writing

Goal 1: Children demonstrate the understanding that writing is a means for communication. With increasing fine motor skills and experiences with literacy, children begin to use writing conventions.

By the end of each age group or grade level, most children will have met prior age group or grade level standards in this domain.

Infants Through Older Toddlers

Infants

(0-12 Months)

  1. Make random marks
  2. With adult assistance, hold writing tools

Young Toddlers

(9-18 Months)

  1. Make random marks and some scribbling
  2. Use simple writing tools without adult assistance

Older Toddlers

(18-36 Months)

  1. Scribbles with more control and sometimes purpose
  2. Tell others what the scribbles or drawings represent
  3. Use dictating, scribbles, or drawings to communicate a message
  4. Use a variety of writing tools
Younger Preschoolers Through Kindergartners

Younger Preschoolers

(36-48 months)

  1. Use scribbles, mock letters, shapes and pictures to purposefully represent experiences, ideas, objects, lists,labels or stories
  2. Experiment with a variety of writing tools and surfaces
  3. Write some letters with assistance and modeling
  4. Dictate a story or event for adult to write

Older Preschoolers

(48-60 months)

  1. Use writing and drawing for various purposes, such as giving information, narrating stories, or giving an opinion
  2. Copy, trace, or independently write letters or words
  3. Print or copy own name and identify some of the letters
  4. Use “sound spelling” (use initial sound of word and other letters to represent sounds heard in the word)
  5. Participate in shared writing experiences (e.g., contributing ideas to a story)

Kindergartners

  1. No standards in this age group for this Element.
First Graders Through Third Graders

First Graders

  1. No standards in this age group for this Element.

Second Graders

  1. No standards in this age group for this Element.

Third Graders

  1. No standards in this age group for this Element.

Goal 2: Children demonstrate their increasing ability to write various types of text for different purposes, organize their writing around a topic, participate and eventually conduct research to gather information to use in their writing about a topic.

By the end of each age group or grade level, most children will have met prior age group or grade level standards in this domain.

Infants Through Older Toddlers

Infants

(0-12 Months)

  1. No standards in this age group for this Element.

Young Toddlers

(9-18 Months)

  1. No standards in this age group for this Element.

Older Toddlers

(18-36 Months)

  1. No standards in this age group for this Element.
Younger Preschoolers Through Kindergartners

Younger Preschoolers

(36-48 months)

  1. No standards in this age group for this Element.

Older Preschoolers

(48-60 months)

  1. No standards in this age group for this Element.

Kindergartners

Text Types and Purposes

  1. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose opinion pieces in which they tell a reader the topic or the name of the book they are writing about and state an opinion or preference about the topic or book (e.g., My favorite book is…)
  2. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic.
  3. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to narrate a single event or several loosely linked events, tell about the events in the order they occurred, and provide a reaction to what happened.

Production and Distribution of Writing

  1. With guidance and support from adults, respond to questions and suggestions from peers and add details to strengthen writing as needed.
  2. With guidance and support from adults, explore a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

  1. Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of books by a favorite author and express opinions about them).
  2. With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.

Range of Writing

  • (Begins in grade 3)
First Graders Through Third Graders

First Graders

Text Types and Purposes

  1. Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or name the book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply a reason for the opinion, and provide some sense of closure.
  2. Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure.
  3. Write narratives in which they recount two or more appropriately sequenced events, include some details regarding what happened, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide some sense of closure.

Production and Distribution of Writing

  1. With guidance and support from adults, focus on a topic, respond to questions and suggestions from peers, and add details to strengthen writing as needed.
  2. With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

  1. Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of “how-to” books on a given topic and use them to write a sequence of instructions).
  2. With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.

Range of Writing

  • (Begins in grade 3)

Second Graders

Text Types and Purposes

  1. Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g., because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section.
  2. Write informative/explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts and definitions to develop points, and provide a concluding statement or section.
  3. Write narratives in which they recount a well-elaborated event or short sequence of events, include details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide a sense of closure.

Production and Distribution of Writing

  1. With guidance and support from adults and peers, focus on a topic and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing.
  2. With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

  1. Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., read a number of books on a single topic to produce a report; record science observations).
  2. Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.

Range of Writing

  • (Begins in grade 3)

Third Graders

Text Types and Purposes

  1. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons.
    1. Introduce the topic or text they are writing about, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure that lists reasons.
    2. Provide reasons that support the opinion.
    3. Use linking words and phrases (e.g., because, therefore, since, for example) to connect opinion and reasons.
    4. Provide a concluding statement or section.
  2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
    1. Introduce a topic and group related information together; include illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension.
    2. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details.
    3. Use linking words and phrases (e.g., also, another, and, more, but) to connect ideas within categories of information.
    4. Provide a concluding statement or section
  3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
    1. Establish a situation and introduce a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
    2. Use dialogue and descriptions of actions, thoughts, and feelings to develop experiences and events or show the response of characters to situations.
    3. Use temporal words and phrases to signal event order.
    4. Provide a sense of closure.

Production and Distribution of Writing

  1. With guidance and support from adults, produce writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task and purpose. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in Standards 1–3 above.)
  2. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing.
  3. With guidance and support from adults, use technology to produce and publish writing (using keyboarding skills) as well as to interact and collaborate with others.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

  1. Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic.
  2. Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories.

Range of Writing

  1. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Vermont Agency of Education
Secretary Daniel M. French
219 North Main Street, Suite 402
Barre, VT 05641

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