Communication and Expression

Literacy Development

Reading -- Engagement with Literature and Informational Text

Goal 1: Children develop “book language” and demonstrate comprehension.

By the end of each age group or grade level, most children will have met prior age group or grade level standards in this domain.

Infants Through Older Toddlers


(0-12 Months)

  1. Show interest in shared reading activities and looking at books
  2. Explore book through sight, touch, and by using their mouths

Young Toddlers

(9-18 Months)

  1. Focus attention for short periods of time when read to
  2. Use “book babble” when holding a book to mimic sound of reading
  3. Demonstrate preference for favorite books
  4. Pretend to read and write the way they see parents and others do
  5. Request adults to read a favorite book

Older Toddlers

(18-36 Months)

  1. Provide particular language from a book at appropriate times during shared reading experiences
  2. Request adults to read a book
  3. Answer simple questions about the story with modeling and assistance
  4. Actively participate in shared reading experiences by asking questions and making comments
  5. Retell some events in a familiar story with modeling and assistance
Younger Preschoolers Through Kindergartners

Younger Preschoolers

(36-48 months)

  1. Use pictures to predict book content
  2. With modeling, assistance, and props, retell or re-enact a familiar story.
  3. Use storybook language, forms and conventions (e.g., once upon a time, the end) when telling stories
  4. Have and share an opinion about what they liked and didn’t like about a story or book
  5. Demonstrate appreciation for a variety of literary genres (e.g., fantasy, informational texts, non-fiction, fiction)
  6. Listen to and discuss informational text and literature
  7. Point to print illustrating that print carries a message

Older Preschoolers

(48-60 months)

  1. Identify characters and setting in a story read aloud
  2. Use story title, pictures, content and prior knowledge to predict story content
  3. Make connections between stories and real-life experiences
  4. Retell or re-enact a familiar story in the correct sequence of a familiar story’s major events with prompting and support
  5. Ask and answer questions about the characters and major events of a story with prompting and support


  1. No standards in this age group for this Element.
First Graders Through Third Graders

First Graders

  1. No standards in this age group for this Element.

Second Graders

  1. No standards in this age group for this Element.

Third Graders

  1. No standards in this age group for this Element.

Vermont Agency of Education
Secretary Daniel M. French
219 North Main Street, Suite 402
Barre, VT 05641

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