Communication and Expression

Language Development


Language (CCSS)

Goal 1:Children demonstrate increasing knowledge and use of the conventions of Standard English and an ability to think about language. They gradually acquire a larger & more complex vocabulary and an understanding of word relationships and the nuances in word meanings.

By the end of each age group or grade level, most children will have met prior age group or grade level standards in this domain.

Infants Through Older Toddlers

Infants

(0-12 Months)

  1. No standards in this age group for this Element.

Young Toddlers

(9-18 Months)

  1. No standards in this age group for this Element.

Older Toddlers

(18-36 Months)

  1. No standards in this age group for this Element.
Younger Preschoolers Through Kindergartners

Younger Preschoolers

(36-48 months)

  1. No standards in this age group for this Element.

Older Preschoolers

(48-60 months)

  1. No standards in this age group for this Element.

Kindergartners

Conventions of Standard English

  1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    1. Print many upper- and lowercase letters.
    2. Use frequently occurring nouns and verbs.
    3. Form regular plural nouns orally by adding /s/ or /es/ (e.g., dog, dogs; wish, wishes).
    4. Understand and use question words (interrogatives)
    5. Use the most frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., to, from, in) [more]
    6. Produce and expand complete sentences in shared language activities.
  2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    1. Capitalize the first word in a sentence and the pronoun I.
    2. Recognize and name end punctuation.
    3. Write a letter or letters for most consonant and short-vowel sounds (phonemes).
    4. Spell simple words phonetically, drawing on knowledge of sound-letter relationships.

Knowledge of Language (Begins in grade 2)

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

  1. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on kindergarten reading and content.
    1. Identify new meanings for familiar words and apply them accurately (e.g., knowing duck is a bird and learning the verb to duck).
    2. Use the most frequently occurring inflections and affixes (e.g., -ed, -s), as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word.
  2. With guidance and support from adults, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
    1. Sort common objects into categories to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.
    2. Demonstrate understanding of frequently occurring verbs and adjectives by relating them to their opposites (antonyms).
    3. Identify real-life connections between words and their use [more]
    4. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs describing the same general action (e.g., walk, march), by acting out the meanings.
  3. Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts.
First Graders Through Third Graders

First Graders

Conventions of Standard English

  1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    1. Print all upper- and lowercase letters.
    2. Use common, proper, and possessive nouns.
    3. Use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic sentences (e.g., He hops; We hop).
    4. Use personal, possessive, and indefinite pronouns (e.g., I, me, my; they, them, their; anyone, everything).
    5. Use verbs to convey a sense of past, present, and future.
    6. Use frequently occurring adjectives.
    7. Use frequently occurring conjunctions (e.g., and, but, or, so, because).
    8. Use determiners (e.g., articles, demonstratives).
    9. Use frequently occurring prepositions
  2. Produce and expand complete simple and compound declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences in response to prompts.
  3. Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

Knowledge of Language (Begins in grade 2)

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

  1. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 1 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.
    1. Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    2. Use frequently occurring affixes as a clue to the meaning of a word.
    3. Identify frequently occurring root words (e.g., look) and their inflectional forms (e.g., looks, looked, looking).
  2. With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
    1. Sort words into categories (e.g., colors, clothing) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.
    2. Define words by category and by one or more key attributes
    3. Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at home that are cozy).
    4. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs differing in manner (e.g., look, peek, glance, stare, glare, scowl) and adjectives differing in intensity (e.g., large, gigantic) by defining or choosing them or by acting out the meanings.
  3. Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using frequently occurring conjunctions to signal simple relationships (e.g., because).

Second Graders

Conventions of Standard English

  1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    1. Use collective nouns (e.g., group).
    2. Form and use frequently occurring irregular plural nouns (e.g., feet, children, teeth, mice, fish).
    3. Use reflexive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves).
    4. Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs (e.g., sat, hid, told).
    5. Use adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
    6. Produce, expand, and rearrange complete simple and compound sentences.
  2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

Knowledge of Language

  1. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening
    1. Compare formal and informal uses of English.

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

  1. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 2 reading and content
    1. Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    2. Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known prefix is added to a known word
    3. Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., addition, additional).
    4. Use knowledge of the meaning of individual words to predict the meaning of compound words (e.g., birdhouse, lighthouse)
    5. Use glossaries and dictionaries
    6. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 2 reading and content
    7. Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    8. Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., addition, additional).
    9. Use knowledge of the meaning of individual words to predict the meaning of compound words (e.g., birdhouse, lighthouse)
    10. Use glossaries and beginning dictionaries
  2. Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
    1. Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., describe foods that are spicy)
    2. Distinguish shades of meaning among closely related verbs (e.g., toss, throw, hurl) and closely related adjectives
  3. Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts

Third Graders

Conventions of Standard English

  1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    1. Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs
    2. Form and use regular and irregular plural nouns.
    3. Use abstract nouns (e.g., childhood).
    4. Form and use regular and irregular verbs.
    5. Form and use the simple (e.g., I walked; I walk; I will walk) verb tenses.
    6. Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement.*
    7. Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs.
    8. Use coordinating and subordinating conjunctions.
    9. Produce simple, compound, and complex sentences.
  2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

Knowledge of Language

  1. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
    1. Choose words and phrases for effect.
    2. Recognize and observe differences between the conventions of spoken and written Standard English.

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

  1. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning word and phrases based on grade 3 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
    1. Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    2. Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known affix is added to a known word
    3. Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., company, companion).
    4. Use glossaries or beginning dictionaries, to determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words
    5. Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    6. Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known affix is added to a known word
    7. Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., company, companion).
    8. Use glossaries or beginning dictionaries, to determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words
  2. Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances
    1. Distinguish the literal and nonliteral meanings of words and phrases
    2. Identify real-life connections between words and their use.
    3. Distinguish shades of meaning among related words that describe states of mind or degrees of certainty
  3. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate conversational, general academic, and domain-specific words and phrases

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